Social Media make the world global; but global is not equal to standard

Globalisation is not equal to standardization and different cultures need different communication strategies.
Anthropologist Edward T. Hall created the distinction between `high context´ and `low context´ in intercultural communications, two interesting concepts to keep in mind when designing communication strategies and relationships in international public relations.
In a HIGH CONTEXT culture, the primary purpose of communication is to form and develop relationships; whereas in a LOW CONTEXT, the primary purpose of communication is the exchange of information and facts.
There is an interesting classification of countries based on this issue (although it is not fair to generalize): in countries with low context the communication is verbal (over non verbal), the business outlook is competitive, the work style is individualistic and the work ethic is task-oriented. Whereas in high context countries the communication in non verbal over verbal, the business outlook is cooperative, the work style is team oriented and the work ethic is relationship-oriented.
Using an example to compare business relationships between an American and a Japanesse manager, this last one said to the American: `We are a homogeneous people and don’t have to speak as much as you do here. When we say one word, we understand ten, but here you have to say ten to understand one´.

These differences could make the most (or the worst) in business relationships and also in PR campaigns. PR is about creation of meanings as well, and culture has a powerfull effect on communication.

For example, in high context countries which emphasize interpersonal relationships, trust is a key elememt before setting up any business transaction. And trust is built not by a contract or preceding agreement, but by a whole made of conversations, gestures, relations and meetings, facial expressions and even the speaker´s tone of voice. They could even distrust a contract if there is a lack of those other elements.

On the other hand, a low context culture values logic, facts and directness (things that in a high context culture could turn out even a bit rude). They are governed by reason and facts, and use concise meaningful words. To agree a business transaction the only thing they need is an explicit contract.

Context relates to framework, background, and surrounding circumstances in which communication or an event takes place. To become a better international communicator, the first thing to do is to know the different cultures and cultural values. Try to know very well your audience.

Social Media and social networking make it more difficult to keep in mind these differencies since you might be addressing to someone who lives in the other side ot the world. To prevent some cultural potential problems, many companies practice a localized multi-country strategy. They establish different brands and different messages for each particular country, and so they avoid the risk of damaging the whole company reputation (if that were the case); but at the same time they do not benefit from cost savings with global strategies.
Dealing with globalisation and networking requires an accurate qualification in PR practitioners.

saludo oriental


A visit to the British Library

It is 10.30 in a cold London morning (12.03.2013). The hall of the British Library becomes a warm meeting point for the whole class group from Corporate Communications module. This impressive building hosts since 1998 the British Library.
We meet Micke, the Director of Communications and Ben, the Internal Communications manager. They both insist on the fact that the British Library is not a museum or a lending book organisation, but a research institution.
They offer us a very welcome cup of tea in a meeting room which is mainly dedicated to their deals with their stakeholders. They are 13 people within the communications team, which reports to the Marketing and Communications Department -this is an interesting point: Marketing and Communications in the same department.
During an hour and a half our hosts describe for us what their job consists of: the projects they are setting up, their media activity, their advocacy plans.
The responsible for Internal Communications describes they are two people working in that area, and the tools they count on to develop their important function in an organisation with more than 700 employees and a website with 20 blogs run by the employees themselves. When asked about how they control those 20 blogs’ content, the answer comes straightforwardly: there is no control; the employees know the British Library policy and guidelines and that is it.
Intranet, internal emails, staff surveys, video interviews, especial channels, newsletters, and a special social media platform for the staff made by Microsoft: Yammer…, are the means they work with to spread their messages to their public. They also have a staff engagement plan and an updated social media strategy. They encourage their employees to use social media but providing a frame to assure they do it properly.
Marketing and Communications work together in the organisation and they feel they are colleagues, not competitors. Marketing defines the audiences and Communications works with those audiences through different means. Another case of blurred boundaries between what some years ago would have been a real battle.
They evaluate their job through external agencies: monitoring, financial or GRP areas are evaluated by different companies.
If you have a look at the British Library website you can see that it is quite complete and updated.
Definitively, The British Library communications team works.

Monitoring Social Media activity in a company: Cadbury´s case study (2 and conclusions)

Cadbury´s social media activity is frequently updated: they post every day or every two days. They maintain the same content line on the three platforms, with little variations. The community manager of Cadbury partakes very often with audience´s comments –he shows his identity without any objection- and interacts with the consumers.

Cadbury´s content strategy helps to build communities around little events, dates or issues. Its most successful content is just showing the product directly to the public (chocolate itself provokes engagement). By showing the product to the audience it gets totally engaged (chocolate creates addiction?). The quick reactions are: “Want it!” ; “Now!”; “ I’ll try!”.

A high level of resonation by an audience with a positive tone and sentiment come from Cadbury´s social media strategy. The audience engagement is increasing week after week.

Increasing audience, increased number of posts, increasing participation (comments).



My recommendations to Cadbury´s social media strategy:
The company should study how to use social media channels to reach new audiences, more than maintaining the faithful ones. The company should try to find key influencers.
It could be helpful to develop different strategies by diversifying the content on the three platforms –each of one has different audiences-, instead of repeating it.
YouTube is a strong platform and it could provide a new and more global audience with a proper strategy. The company should improve this section.
Cadbury is proactive and persuasive, because of its high quality product. But it is necessary to be prudent when encouraging chocolate consume in a society with serious problems about obesity and not healthy eating habits. The company should study how to promote a kind of advice in this sense.

Is Social Media winning the battle against Traditional Media?

It is a fact that the PR industry is dazzled by the social media factor due to the possibility of reaching the public directly, with consequently more autonomy and independency to manage the communication process. David Meerman in The New Rules of Marketing and PR affirms: “We have been liberated from relying exclusively on buying access through advertising or convincing mainstream media to talk us up”.

 In that sense Social Media has opened different ways for PR practitioners to access to broader and more targeted audiences, but it does not mean that it is the end for traditional media.

 Meerman´s statement is understandable from the point of view of an organisation interested on delivering content. However, how does the public behave when they need specific information? The report “Influencing the influencers” (*) describes: `Media consumption has changed with the proliferation of digital media, but influencers continue overwhelmingly to trust traditional media. Influencers get news from faster, digital sources, but often from the online version of a newspaper or broadcaster (…). The public is far less likely to get their news from social media outlets´.

 And: `The people and outlets that are trusted on Twitter are by and large the same individuals and organisations that are trusted offline (…).  Embracing social media is a good thing but in the rush to have a greater digital presence, organisations shouldn’t forget that it is traditional media outlets to which the public still turns´.

 In a recent congress about journalism in Spain, the director of a local newspaper affirmed that what is published on Twitter does not become a piece of news until it is also published on a newspaper.

 So the public need to corroborate the information which comes from social media with traditional media to make is trustable and credible. Two-ways communications are not replacing one-way traditional media, since still traditional media coverage is needed. That is the way the public behaves. Traditional media are still trusted as a resource of guarantied information, even with social media making it easier and quicker to access or share information.

[*] Report: Open Road, Rebecca Reilly and Nick Nye (2011), Influencing the influencers, London

An ‘Excellent’ vision about Public Relations practice: James E. Grunig

This is the 6th month in this Public Relations MA, and we have had many opportunities to study the theory about Public Relations produced by one of its main gurus: James E. Grunig.
James E. Grunig is a theorist with more than 20 years of experience. His Four Models of Public Relations are for us -the students- quite familiar.
The first one, ‘Press agentry/publicity’ is characterized by a one-way communication process, where organisations use ‘persuasion’ and ‘manipulation’ to influence audiences to behave as the organization desires.
His second model is called the ‘Public information model’, also with one-way communication process and organisations using pses press releases and other one-way communication techniques to distribute organizational information. The Public Relations practitioner is often referred to as the in-house journalist.
‘Two-way asymmetrical model’ is his third proposal, with an imbalanced two-ways communication process, and with organisations using persuasion and manipulation to influence audiences to behave as they desire. They do not use research to find out how stakeholders feel about the organization.
The last model, the ‘Two-way symmetrical model’, offers a two-ways communication process where organisations uses communication to negotiate with the public, resolve conflict and promote mutual understanding and respect between the organization and its stakeholders.

Today we are reading one of his articles, ‘The paradigms of global public relations in an age of digitalisation’, published in 2009. In his article, Grunig describes how digital media can make the profession more global, strategic, interactive, two-way, symmetrical or dialogical and socially responsible.
He connects this potential of social media with other of his most renowned theories: The Excellence Model, a theory which promotes the PR practice as a separate management function within the organisations. An integrated communication function where the PR department integrates all public relations activities without reporting any more to diverse organisational sections like Human Resources, Marketing, Finance or Law.
Because social media are above all ‘two-way’, he encourages chief communication officers to get properly qualified and to think more globally.
Because social media are ‘conversations to join’, he reaffirms the content of his ‘situational theory’, where he defends how members of publics always have controlled the messages to which they are exposed (and no the organisations). And advises PR professionals to stablish better relationships by joining these conversations.
He recommends insistently not to use social media in one-way communication if organisations are expecting social-networking success.
Finally, Grunig affirms that social media could help organistions to identify theirs stakeholders; they are an excellent tool to scan the environment and to segment the publics, and to anticipate and deal with issues and crises. They can also be an effective instrument to evaluate communication programmes and to measure relationships and reputation.
This is another way to yield excellent results in this exciting profession.

Internal Communication, Engagement and Social Media

engagementInternal communication is coming again to the fore within corporate communications since companies are more conscious about the value of employees as an important part of their stakeholders. Many organisations are suffering the consequences of a changing business environment (which implies employee movements after mergers or acquisitions, brain drain, etc.) and globalisation is reducing differences among companies, which perceive the need to distinguish themselves from the competition, their rivals. Employee engagement is becoming one of the main strengths in organisations. This engagement does not only affect to employees who are in the public-facing line, but to all of them in general. Public relations can contribute great value to the organisations by developing effective internal communication.

Organisations are discovering that engaged employees form a real asset to the company, contribute to productivity and are a saving money source. Organisations want engaged employees to stay within the company, but to make this real they need to improve the way of building mutual relationships. Old one-way management styles are ineffective in this new business environment.

Social media activity is increasingly becoming part of the daily life in developed societies and it is developing more and more digital ways to connect people. This fact is provoking a deep change in people´s behaviour, building up a more interactive society. The employees, as a part of this interactive society, also feel the need of being better informed within the organisations, they demand to participate in decision-making process and require quicker and more functional communication channels. The Net generation (people who could be qualify as `social media natives´) is increasingly gaining access to the workplace and this fact reinforces the current demand of change in an organisational dialogue which can be no more one-way style because there is no more one-way outside. Stakeholders have become more demanding, better informed and more critical. They are empowered because of the digital revolution and in consequence organisations must improve the ways to deal with them.

Social media tools, as a component of this organic social change, could provide the organisations the means to develop an improved communication strategy between employees and senior managers, who should integrate this practice into their strategic management and improve their current internal communication practice. But there are still many reservations, since these new tools suppose a big innovation.


Social Media is an increasing and developing sector. It is changing the way people communicate and also enhancing new ways to build communities. And communities mean potential buyers, publics or audiences, depending on the viewer´s interests. Social Media or New Media –as we agreed to denominate it, because it is a developing sector (think of mobiles, ipads, …new technologies connecting gadgets to gadgets)- is always in the eye of the storm.
The size of the communities built by social media is also quite interesting as measured by millions. And the average age of the users is in the range between twenties and fifties, most of them working population.
Social Media offers a variety of places: forums, networks, virtual worlds, content sharing, blogs…, it is easy of access and flexible. It enables a company or organisation to get in touch with others in a flexible and cheap way. And it provides a two-ways communication process, with the possibility of interacting and getting not only feedback but dialogue and message’s resonance.
Social Media is changing the way the professionals of Communication, Public Relations, Advertising and Marketing develop their strategies. The expression ‘That who is not present on the Internet, does not exist’ is evolving to ‘that who is not present in Social Media scenarios, does not exist’. Marketing is looking for consumers, as well as Advertising tries to get audiences and PR stakeholders. Marketing is getting now more and more focused on relationships, an area until now taken by PR (you can explore more this content in the interesting book The New Rules of Marketing and PR written by David Meerman Scott (2012, New Jersey, Wiley). Advertising is developing new strategies to spread its messages and reach its audiences; boundaries among these professional practices are disappearing. PR practice should explore more the possibilities of Social Media not only for developing creative campaigns and videos which go viral but also for carrying out new ways to engage with stakeholders. Here is the challenge.
On the other hand, this sector requires a constant updating and also a professional expertise to develop proper contents and strategies and to measure its effects to assure the efficiency. In other words, a professional needs qualification.
These are some of the reasons why I chose this module and this MA.